Software that is publicly available that uses a license on the OSI list.
An open source software project where development - code check ins, making a roadmap, discussing bugs reported and how to fix them - is done on openly accessible and archived locations, like mailing list or Github.
An open development style software project where contributors can eventually earn the right to help control the future of the project, perhaps by being elected or appointed to the project management committee or technical board.
Software that is publicly available that uses a license on the FSF list that preserves the Four Freedoms. It often, but not always, overlaps with open source licenses. FOSS means Free and Open Source Software.
Open Source has distinct meanings in several different contexts: legally, organizationally, communities, and more. Read a more philosophical take on open source.
Github’s Open Source Guide is a comprehensive high-level explanation of most open source concepts.
The TODO Group created a guide for enterprises: how to plan for and manage open source projects in business.
Google’s own open source office created their own guide for how to manage projects and communities.
RedHat’s opensource.com blog and guide to the Open Organization provides regular blogs and essays about key topics.
The Apache Way is a set of behaviors and techniques for distributed development used in all Apache Software Foundation projects and modified and adapted by many FOSS projects.
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